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AWK
Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index Syntax awk ''Program'' Input-File1 Input-File2 ... awk -f PROGRAM ...

Basics of Linux - the root directory
When you start working with Linux OS (operating system) and learning how to user Linux, you will soon discover that there are several Linux terms that ...

BREAK
Exit from a for, while, until, or select loop SYNTAX break [n]If n is supplied, the nth enclosing loop is exited. n must be greater than or ...

BUILTIN
Run a shell builtin, passing it args, and return its exit status. SYNTAX builtin [shell-builtin [args]]This is useful when defining a shel ...

CAL
Display a calendar SYNTAX cal [-mjy] [[month] year] options: -m Display monday as the first day of the week. -j ...

CASE
Conditionally perform a command, case will selectively execute the command-list corresponding to the first pattern that matches word. SYNTAX ...

CAT
Display the contents of a file (concatenate) SYNTAX cat [Options] [File]... Concatenate FILE(s), or standard input, to standard output. ...

CD
Change Directory - change the current working directory to a specific Folder. SYNTAX cd [-LP] [directory] OPTIONS -P : Do not fo ...

CFDISK
Curses based disk partition table manipulator for Linux SYNTAX cfdisk [ -agvz ] [ -c cylinders ] [ -h heads ] [ -s sectors ...

CHGRP
Change group ownership ''chgrp'' changes the group ownership of each given File to Group (which can be either a group name or a numeric group id) o ...

CHMOD
Change access permissions, change mode. Usage: chmod [Options]... MODE [,MODE]... File... chmod [Options]... NUMERIC_MODE File... ...

CHOWN
Change owner, change the user and/or group ownership of each given File to a new Owner. Chown can also change the ownership of a file to match the us ...

CHROOT
Run a command with a different root directory ''chroot'' runs a command with a specified root directory. On many systems, only the super-user can do ...

CKSUM
Print CRC checksum and byte counts Computes a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) checksum for each given FILE, or standard input if none are given or fo ...

CMP
Compare two files, and if they differ, tells the first byte and line number where they differ. You can use the `cmp'' command to show the offsets a ...

COMM
Common - compare two sorted files line by line and write to standard output: the lines that are common, plus the lines that are unique. SYNTAX ...

COMMAND
Run command with arguments ignoring any shell function named command. SYNTAX command [-pVv] command [arguments ...] OPTIONS -P ...

Command Prompt Fun with Linux
When you enter a command in Linux, you type a command at a prompt and then press enter. Commands can be more than one word--some require switches (whi ...

CONTINUE
Resume the next iteration of an enclosing for, while, until, or select loop. SYNTAX continue [n]If n is supplied, the execution of the nth ...

CP
Copy one or more files to another location Copy SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY. Syntax cp [options]... Source Dest ...

CRON
daemon to execute scheduled commands Syntax cronHow to run the cron daemon: Cron should be started from /etc/rc or /etc/rc.local. It will re ...

CRONTAB
Schedule a command to run at a later time SYNTAX crontab [ -u user ] file crontab [ -u user ] { -l | -r | -e } Key -l List - ...

CSPLIT
Split a file into context-determined pieces. SYNTAX csplit [options]... INPUT PATTERN... Creates zero or more output files containing sect ...

CUT
Divide a file into several parts (columns) Writes to standard output selected parts of each line of each input file, or standard input if no files ar ...

DATE
Display or change the date SYNTAX date [OPTION]... [+FORMAT] or: date [OPTION] [MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss]] `date'' with no argum ...

DC
Desk calculator SYNTAX dc OPTIONS -e EXPR --expression=EXPR Evaluate EXPR as DC commands. -f FILE --file=FILE ...

DD
Dump Data - convert and copy a file (use for RAW storage), create a boot floppy. SYNTAX dd [OPTION]... DESCRIPTION The numeric-value ...

DECLARE
Declare variables and give them attributes. SYNTAX declare [-afFrxi] [-p] [name[=value]] OPTIONS -a Each name is an array varia ...

DF
Disk Free - display free disk space. With no arguments, `df'' reports the space used and available on all currently mounted filesystems (of all types ...

DIFF
Display the differences between two files, or each corresponding file in two directories. Each set of differences is called a "diff" or "patch". For ...

DIFF3
Show differences among three files. When two people have made independent changes to a common original, `diff3'' can report the differences between t ...

DIG
A flexible tool for interrogating DNS name servers. It performs DNS lookups and displays the answers that are returned from the name server(s) that we ...

DIR
Briefly list directory contents SYNTAX `dir'' (also installed as `d'')Equivalent to `ls -C -b''; that is,by default files are listed in col ...

DIRCOLORS
Color setup for `ls'', outputs a sequence of shell commands to set up the terminal for color output from `ls'' (and `dir'', etc.). SYNTAX ...

DIRNAME
Convert a full pathname to just a path SYNTAX dirname pathname DESCRIPTION Prints all but the final slash-delimited component of a str ...

DIRS
Display the list of currently remembered directories. SYNTAX dirs [+N | -N] [-clpv] OPTIONS +N Displays the Nth directory (count ...

DU
Disk Usage - report the amount of disk space used by the specified files and for each subdirectory. SYNTAX du [options]... [file]... With ...

ECHO
Display message on screen, writes each given STRING to standard output, with a space between each and a newline after the last one. SYNTAX ec ...

EGREP
Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression (extended grep) SYNTAX egrep [ options ] ''PATTERN'' files ... egrep is the s ...

ENABLE
Enable and disable builtin shell commands. SYNTAX enable [-n] [-p] [-f filename] [-ads] [name ...] OPTIONS -a list each buil ...

ENV
Display, set, or remove environment variables, Run a command in a modified environment. SYNTAX env [OPTION]... [NAME=VALUE]... [COMMAND [AR ...

EVAL
Evaluate several commands/arguments SYNTAX eval [arguments]The arguments are concatenated together into a single command, which is then read ...

EXEC
Execute a command SYNTAX exec [-cl] [-a name] [command [arguments]] OPTIONS -l Place a dash at the beginning of the zeroth arg p ...

EXPAND
Convert tabs to spaces, write the contents of each given file, to standard output, with tab characters converted to the appropriate number of spaces. ...

EXPORT
Set an environment variable. Mark each name to be passed to child processes in the environment. SYNTAX export [-fn] [-p] [name[=value]] O ...

EXPR
SYNTAX expr expression... DESCRIPTION Each token of the expression must be a separate argument. Operands are either numbers or strings. ...

FALSE
Do nothing, returning a non-zero (false) exit status SYNTAX false`false'' does nothing except return an exit status of 1, meaning "failure". ...

FDFORMAT
Low-level format a floppy disk SYNTAX fdformat [ -n ] device OPTIONS -n No verify. This will disable the verification ...

FDISK
Partition table manipulator for Linux SYNTAX fdisk [-u] device fdisk -l [-u] device ... fdisk -s partition ... ...

FGREP
Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string SYNTAX fgrep ... fgrep is the same as `grep -F'' all other options are th ...

FIND
Search a folder hierarchy for filename(s) that meet a desired criteria: Name, Size, File Type etc. SYNTAX find [path...] [options] [tests] [ ...

FMT
Reformat paragraph text, fill and join lines to produce output lines of a given width (75 characters by default). SYNTAX fmt [option(s)]... ...

FOLD
Wrap input lines to fit in specified width, writes each FILE (`-'' means standard input), or standard input if none are given, to standard output, bre ...

FOR
Expand words, and execute commands once for each member in the resultant list, with name bound to the current member. SYNTAX for name [in wo ...

FSCK
Filesystem consistency check and interactive repair. Journaling file systems avoid the need to run fsck. SYNTAX fsck [options] [filesystem ...

FUNCTION
Shell functions are a way to group commands for later execution using a single name for the group. They are executed just like a "regular" command. Wh ...

GETOPTS
getopts is used by shell scripts to parse positional parameters. SYNTAX getopts optstring name [args] OPTIONS optstring : The opti ...

GREP
Search file(s) for specific text. SYNTAX grep "Search String" [filename] grep [-e pattern] [file...] ...

GROUPS
Print group names a user is in. SYNTAX groups [username]...Prints the names of the primary and any supplementary groups for each given userna ...

GZIP
Compress or decompress named file(s) SYNTAX gzip options ... OPTIONS --stdout --to-stdout -c Write output on standard output; ...

HASH
Remember the full pathnames of commands specified as name arguments, so they need not be searched for on subsequent invocations. SYNTAX has ...

HEAD
Output the first part of files, prints the first part (10 lines by default) of each FILE; it reads from standard input if no files are given or when g ...

HISTORY
Command Line history SYNTAX history history [n] history -c history -d offset history [-anrw] [filename] ...

HOSTNAME
Print or set system name SYNTAX hostname [name] With no arguments, `hostname'' prints the name of the current host system. With one argumen ...

ID
Print real and effective user id (uid) and group id (gid), prints identity information about the given user, or if no user is specified the current pr ...

IF
Conditionally perform a command. SYNTAX if test-commands; then consequent-commands; [elif more-test-commands; then mor ...

IFCONFIG
Interface configurator - display your ip address, network interfaces, transferred and received data information, configure a network interface. Syn ...

IMPORT
Capture some or all of an X server screen and save the image to file. SYNTAX import [ options ... ] [ file ] import reads an image from any ...

INSTALL
Copy files and set attributes, copies files while setting their permission modes and, if possible, their owner and group. SYNTAX install [op ...

Introduction to Linux
What is Linux? Linux is a free open source operating system originally developed by Linus Torvalds in the early 1990s. It was released as open ...

JOIN
Join lines on a common field, writes to standard output a line for each pair of input lines that have identical join fields. SYNTAX join [Op ...

KILL
Stop a process from running, either via a signal or forced termination. SYNTAX kill [-s sigspec] [-n signum] [-sigspec] jobspec or pid ...

LESS
Display output one screen at a time, Search through output, Edit the command line. SYNTAX less [options] | less [options] ...

LET
Perform arithmetic on shell variables. SYNTAX let expression [expression]If the last expression evaluates to 0, let returns 1; otherwise 0 i ...

Linux Command History Feature
Bash remembers what commands you''ve recently entered so that you can recall and issue them again easily. If you press the up-arrow key, bash places t ...

LN
Make links between files, by default, it makes hard links; with the `-s'' option, it makes symbolic (or "soft") links. SYNTAX ln [Options].. ...

LOCAL
Create variables SYNTAX local [option] name[=value]For each argument, a local variable named name is created, and assigned value. The op ...

LOCATE
Find files. SYNTAX locate [options] pattern Options -d path, --database=path Search databases in path. ...

LOGNAME
Print current login name SYNTAX logname Prints the calling user''s name, as found in the file`/var/run/utmp'', and exits with a status of 0 ...

Logoff or Shutdown Linux
logout at the command prompt exits your current user account and returns you to the log-in prompt. (The exit command does the same thing as logout. ...

LOGOUT
Exit a login shell. SYNTAX logout [n]Returns a status of n to the shell''s parent. A login shell, is your topmost shell, and is started ...

LOOK
Display any lines in file which contain string as a prefix. Syntax look [-df] [-t termchar] string [file] As look performs a binary sea ...

LP
line printer control program SYNTAX lpc [command [argument ...]] DESCRIPTION Lpc is used by the system administrator to control the ...

LPR
lpr off line print - sends a print job to the default system queue. SYNTAX lpr [-Pprinter] [-#num] [-C class] [-J job] [-T title] [-U use ...

LPRM
Remove jobs from the line printer spooling queue SYNTAX lprm [-Pprinter] [-] [job# ...] [user ...] Options and arguments: ...

LS
List information about FILEs, by default the current directory. SYNTAX ls [Options]... [File]... KEY Sort entries alphabetically i ...

MAN
Display helpful information about commands. Syntax man [-k] [command] man intro man bash info [command] ...

MKDIR
Create new folder(s), if they do not already exist. SYNTAX mkdir [Options] folder... mkdir "Name with spaces" OPTIONS -m, - ...

MKFIFO
Make FIFOs (named pipes) with the specified names. SYNTAX mkfifo [options] NAME... OPTIONS `-m MODE'' `--mode=MODE'' Set the ...

MKNOD
creates a FIFO, character special file, or block special file with the specified name. SYNTAX mknod [options]... NAME Type [Major Minor] ...

MORE
Display output one screen at a time, less provides more emulation and extensive enhancements. SYNTAX more [-dlfpcsu] [-num] [+/ pattern] [+ ...

MOUNT
mount a file system All files accessible in a Unix system are arranged in one big tree, the file hierarchy, rooted at /. These files can be spread ou ...

MTOOLS
Mtools is a public domain collection of tools to allow Unix systems to manipulate MS-DOS files: read, write, and move around files on an MS-DOS filesy ...

MV
Move or rename files or directories. SYNTAX mv [options]... Source Dest mv [options]... Source... DirectoryIf the last argument nam ...

NICE
Run a command with modified scheduling priority, print or modify the scheduling priority of a job. SYNTAX nice [Option]... [Command [Arg]... ...

NL
Number lines and write files, writes each FILE to standard output, with line numbers added to some or all of the lines. If no input file (or `-'' ) ...

NOHUP
No Hang Up. Run a command immune to hangups, runs the given command with hangup signals ignored, so that the command can continue running in the backg ...

NSLOOKUP
Query Internet name servers Syntax: nslookup nslookup host-to-find nslookup server interactive mode: ns ...

PASSWD
Modify a user password. SYNTAX passwd [options...] OPTIONS -d, --delete delete the password for the named account (root only) ...

PASTE
Merge lines of files, write to standard output lines consisting of sequentially corresponding lines of each given file, separated by a TAB character. ...

PING
Test a network connection. When using ping for fault isolation, it should first be run on the local host, to verify that the local network interface i ...

POPD
Remove the top entry from the directory stack, and cd to the new top directory. SYNTAX popd [+N | -N] [-n] Key +N Remove the Nth di ...

PR
Prepare files for printing, printing and pagination filter for text files. When multiple input files are specified, each is read, formatted, and writ ...

PRINTF
Format and print data. Write the formatted arguments to the standard output under the control of the format. SYNTAX printf format [argumen ...

PS
Process status, information about processes running in memory. If you want a repetitive update of this status, use top. SYNTAX Display Proce ...

PUSHD
Save and then change the current directory. With no arguments, pushd exchanges the top two directories. SYNTAX pushd [dir | +N | -N] [-n] K ...

PWD
Print Working Directory SYNTAX pwd [-LP] OPTIONS (shell builtin) -P : The pathname printed will not contain symbolic links. ...

QUOTA
Display disk usage and limits, by default only the user quotas are printed. SYNTAX quota [ -guv | q ] quota [ -uv | q ] user ...

QUOTACHECK
Scan a file system for disk usage SYNTAX quotacheck [-g] [-u] [-v] -a quotacheck [-g] [-u] [-v] filesys ... Quotach ...

QUOTACTL
Set disk quotas SYNTAX #include int quotactl(cmd, special, uid, addr) int cmd; char *special; ...

RAM
ram disk device Ram is a block device to access the ram disk in raw mode. It is typically created by: mknod -m 660 /dev/ram b 1 ...

RCP
Remote Copy - move files between machines. Each file or directory is either a remote filename of the form rname@rhost:path or a local filename. S ...

READ
Read a line from standard input SYNTAX read [-ers] [-a aname] [-p prompt] [-t timeout] [-n nchars] [-d delim] [name.. ...

READONLY
Mark variables/functions as readonly. SYNTAX readonly [-apf] [name] ... OPTIONS -f Each name refers to a shell ...

RETURN
Cause a shell function to exit with the return value n. SYNTAX return [n] Options n Return value i.e. an errorlevelIf n is n ...

RM
Remove files (delete/unlink) SYNTAX rm [options]... file... OPTIONS -d, --directory unlink directory, even if non-empty (super-u ...

RMDIR
Remove directory, this command will only work if the folders are empty. Syntax rmdir [options]... folder(s)... Options --ignore-fa ...

RSYNC
Remote file copy - Synchronize file trees across local disks, directories or across a network. SYNTAX # Local file to Local file rsync [op ...

Virtual Consoles in Linux
You can use virtual consoles to perform two activities in parallel. For example, I used one virtual console to write this section and another to test ...

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